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98                                           FLORA   INDICA.
shrubs, etc., amongst it. This vegetation presents many pecu-
liar features, and its total absence from the plains is not to be
accounted for by any simple law of climate. Amongst other
Orders we may mention especially Magnoliacea, Ternstrw-*
miacea, subtropical Rosacea (as, Prunus, Photinia, etc.), Kad-
sura, Sphcerostema, Rhododendron, Vaccinium, Ilex, Styrax,
Symplocos, Olea, Sapotacea, Lauracea, Podocarjnts, Pinus lon-
gifolia; with many mountain forms of truly tropical families,
as Palms, Pandanm, Musa, Clusiacea, Vines, Vernonia, and
hosts of others. These are instances of more or less strictly
mountain plants prevailing uniformly over many degrees of
latitude and longitude without ascending or descending much,
but which are so rarely seen on the plains, as to entitle them
collectively to a separate notice when treating of the phases of
Indian vegetation.
Advancing westward, especially in the Himalaya, MTC expe-
rience a drier climate, which exaggerates the effect of eleva-
tion on the vegetation, and produces besides many curious
anopaalies, as a reduced mean temperature divided into two
seasons, one of heat and one of cold, which are more con-
trasted at these elevations than on the plains. It is ob-
viously impossible to enter here into the details of the ap*
parent anomalies thus caused in the distribution of plants $
each individual species demanding a study of its natural habits
to explain its aptitude for an extended distribution in, eleva-
tion, or geographical position, or its absolute restriction to a
very narrow area, or to a few spots characterized by a combi-
nation of favourable circumstances. Examples may 1x5 wseu
in the Ephedru of the Panjab and north-western Himalaya,
which ranges from the plains to 16,(XX) feo,t; in th« gemi*
Marlea, which ascends from 3000 to 8000 feet iu Sikkim,
and in the western Panjab, at scarcely 4000 feet, accompaiueft
Cvlth and a species of Ash; in a subtropical Myrsine, which
extends even into Afghanistan; in Junipvrus exce/sa, found an
low as 5000 feet in Afghanistan, and which aaceuds to 15,000
iu Tibet.